Wind Energy as a Distributed Production Source; The use of wind energy is very old. First, it is known to be used in China, Tibet, Afghanistan and Iran from Asian civilizations. The first written information on the use of wind turbines was written by Alexander the Great in B.C. It is about horizontal-axis wind turbines of simple structure in 200-300 years.
Wind energy is a distributed source of production and renewable energy that cannot be ignored due to the size of its potential.
Wind energy, which is not adequately cared for by the cheapness of fossil fuels, has been remembered again for its oil crises in the 1970s. With the developments after 1980; Wind farms in Europe and the United States have become contemporary engineering products in terms of economy, environment and energy.
With the move to mass production of wind turbines, investments in this area and developments on turbines have increased day by day and wind farms have been established. Wind farms, which were previously built on land parts, are now built on the seas (Alarga – Offshore).
In the late 1970s, small wind turbines that provided wind power attracted many, compared with other alternative energizings, driven by low investment costs and evolving technologies.
Between 1979 and 1985, wind farms were built with appropriate government loans ranging from 4500 to 1 to 25kW. In the same period, 1000 remote controlled systems of various features were established.
Wind Energy as Distributed Production Source – First Wind Turbine
In the world; The first turbine to generate electricity from wind energy was built in Denmark in 1891 by Paul la Cour, a major engineer of modern aerodynamics.
Since the unit price of electricity is high, in 1980-1981, wind turbines with a capacity of 55kW were consed and started to be produced as a result of industrial and technological developments.
The wind industry has become more widespread and, with the help of the Risoe National Laboratory, significant reductions in electricity unit prices have occurred in parallel with the development of the European Wind Atlas.
When the smallest wind turbines entered the California market in 1982, they had long been in use in Denmark. In California, the state aid program took effect between 1979 and 1985, and in 1981 the number of small wind turbines increased from 150 units to 16000 in late 1985.
Danish manufacturers, which share 75% of all wind turbines in California, have established an industry for 55kW wind turbines. Even today, Danish manufacturers are the largest producers in the worldwide market. In 1985, the prototype with a wings diameter of 25m and 250kW was built in California and released shortly.
In Denmark, home wind turbines were re-developed and launched to keep the market alive. Even today, household wind turbines are manufactured at various forces running independently between 0.1–10kW.
Germany Wind Turbine Technology
Since 1989, wind turbine technology has developed rapidly in Germany. Turbines with a rotor diameter of 25m and output power of 150-250kW were manufactured, followed by turbines with a rotor diameter of 30-35m and output power greater than 300kW.
These turbines have dominated the market for 2–3 years. In August 1992, a 500kW turbine made by the first Tacke-Windtechnik began to work. This was followed by turbines produced by ENERCON's E40 and other European manufacturers. 37m wing diameter rotor production has started for the development of 500kW wind turbines.
This was followed by turbines with a diameter of 46m and 600kW, designed for use in low wind areas, particularly in the in-house areas. Four years after the 500kW turbine made by Tacke-Windtechnik, towards the end of 1996 ENERCON began producing wind turbines with a diameter of 66m to 1.5 MW. This progress; Turbines with a diameter of 66m and a power of 1.65 MW were monitored.
It is no longer unusual to see an RT with a rotor diameter of 70m, 80m or even 100m and powers of 2 MW and above for on-land applications today. In terms of wind energy, sea areas have shown greater wealth than land, so offshore wind farms have been established in the seas.
In the first stage, areas with a distance of 10km from the coast and a depth of more than 10m are targeted. The first offshore wind farm is the Vindeby wind farm, built near the Danish island of Lolland with a power of 5 MW.