Intelligent Architecture; Wealth in terminology, which is used when classing sustainable architectural structures, is a controversial issue because of the breadth of the subject and the complexity of the concept.
Different terms such as environmental design, green architecture, ecological architecture, environmentally sensitive architecture, environmentally friendly architecture, intelligent architecture, energy-efficient architecture, energy-conscious architecture, climatic architecture define complex, contradictory and sometimes competing applications within the expanded meaning of sustainable architecture.
Sustainability is not "after all", but an effort to live life "taking everything into consideration" (Erengezgin, 2005).
These changes to building understanding should be made by the International Association of Architects (UIA) and the United Nations Educational Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO); It is also mentioned in the Architectural Education Charter prepared in 1996.
Future Living Circles
According to this published condition, the following are the goals that must be set in order to create future life circles. These are
– For all people in settlements, a quality of life that is good for human beings,
– A technical application that respects the social, cultural and aesthetic needs of people,
– Ecology-sensitive and sustainable development of the structured environment,
– It is defined as an architecture that everyone sees as their property and responsibility and values it. The result of these goals together describes the search for sustainable buildings today.
In sustainable buildings, there are three insights into ecological sustainability, economic sustainability and social/cultural sustainability.
When creating a sustainable building model, the focus on what this building consists of, what features should be focused, varies according to the professionals involved in the building process and the building user.
This is because the sustainable construction process faces challenges such as determining interactions between building and building activities, resource utensk and environmental impacts, identifying targets, and implementing these goals in the complex and many combined construction sector. In addition, regional and cultural differences are known to be important.
Smart Architecture Smart Building Design
According to Bourdeau (1999), when designing a building; in addition to the physical fabric of the city or region in which it is located, the damages caused by the past on socioeconomic tissue and which it will face in the future should be taken into account.
In addition, it is important to identify and realize short, medium and long-term gains and to determine how to intensify technical knowledge, methods and experiences achieved at other stages through the pre-design process.
On the other hand, it is observed that applications are dealt with in certain terms from time to time; "Environmental design" in the 1970s, "green design" in the 1980s, "ecological design" in the late 1980s and 1990s, "sustainable design" from the mid-1990s to the present.
The 1970s, when it was believed that environmental problems could be easily overcome through science and high technology; It is a period in which analytical research is carried out and building typologies and design methodologies are studied in order to create high standard and comfort built circles in architecture and to achieve optimum design. 1
The 980s were the period when the liberal economy was promoted and the consumer society was encouraged, thus the "green thinking" was developed in consumption. With the concept of "recycling" gaining popularity, architecture is dominated by a technology-centric understanding that metases green thinking using ozone-friendly and decompeable materials.
Also, from the mid-1980s; an ecology-centric understanding develops that makes nature the main inspiration, trying to use passive energy systems, seeing human beings as part of the ecosystem and building as a healthy and biological organism. The same period was the year when locality and ecological architectural approaches met the common denominator, and Kenneth Frampton's critical regionalism rhetoric became widespread.
At the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the continuity of economic growth and development in northern countries was guaranteed by the "sustainable development" approach; The architectural project is designed to serve a self-sufficed socio-economic system that maintains cultural values and ecological structure, supports local economic production.
Smart Architecture and Buildings Balanced with Nature
The change in terminology points to the expanding field of architectural theory and practice in this regard. In this context, until the mid-1990s, the subject of "building", "balanced connection with nature" concern, in general , "environmentally sensitive" applications can be mentioned.
When the sustainable architectural practices in Europe are examined; According to figure-3 values, there are many successful sustainable examples in europe (Flanagan, bt), public buildings, educational structures, office complexes, factories, residences, etc., which have the largest share in the world's 3,600 billion construction sector with 29% expenditure.
For cooling, ventilation, lighting and heating needs in these buildings; active and passive natural energy systems used; Many targets and criteria such as water and waste management, indoor air quality (IMHK), material selection and application methods have been successfully implemented.
Since 1992, work has been being done in the EU to ensure sustainable development. The Working Group for Sustainable Construction Methods and Techniques (WGSC) has been established to advise the European Commission on sustainable buildings.
In this group's conclusion report, technological and economic constraints; due to inadequacies in research, political and cultural obstacles, it is stated that the spread of sustainable buildings should be restricted.
The THERMIE B Programme, created from here and supported by the EU, is; In France, Spain, Greece and Italy surrounding the Mediterranean, experimental studies on bioclimatic buildings have helped to create new methods and techniques.
Sustainable Buildings in the World with Intelligent Architecture
Sustainable building in European countries such as the UK, Netherlands, Sweden, France; develops investments and arrangements for construction systems and building inspection.
The Netherlands and Sweden have developed rules supported by pragmatic and didactic tools for environmental design and construction within the goal of taking on the role of environmental leaders in the EU and the UN (Bourdeau, 1999).
However, as a result of the research carried out, after the 1990s, it was observed that the interest of society and sector in sustainable building was replaced by special approaches such as health, IMHK, comfort and aesthetics.
In addition, the Swedish construction and real estate sector launched an important environmental programme to reduce environmental impacts between 2003 and 2010.
Accordingly, with the use of energy, materials and harmful substances, action plans have been established on indoor air quality in buildings.
In these applications, five main perspectives were taken into account. These are; land integration, environmental quality of construction products, water management, visual comfort and environmental management.
In addition, research and regulations on "Environmentally Friendly products, Techniques and Methods" started in 1993 in order to reduce the problems that will occur in the construction site while ensureing technical and economic efficiency in the building sector.