The concept and benefits of smart grid; all points in the system are defined as awake, responsive, adaptive, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, concurrent, flexible, strong and connectable with any system. It is also expressed as a whole of energy transmission and distribution systems that support alternative energy production and optimize current control.
With an intelligent transmission system, problem areas can be quickly isolated to prevent large-scale power outages. Smart networks will be able to feel overloads with real-time communication infrastructure, regulating energy flow aspects; will create an environmental system that will optimize the use of renewable energy sources and reduce user costs.
Smart Grid Concept and Benefits; Duplex Meter Communication
This structure is in a very active position with relays with fast communication in distribution systems and counters that can determine lost leakage rates and make two-way readings that make the user aware. In addition, it has created a structure that, in addition to classical systems, can adapt to changing load flow structures with the participation of renewable energy sources.
It will be able to change all protection coordination and switching structures. With such a change, it has been almost impossible to deal with classical structures. In addition, the microgrid philosopher (Microgrid), which expresses independent energy regions, needs a smart grid structure to become a reality.
An excellent power system should not leave its consumers without energy, it should be fuel efficient and friendly with nature. It should be able to survive natural disasters and have a structure that minimizes the impact of cyber attacks. The cost of having such a structure should also be minimized. Improving the quality of power doesn't mean having more resources. Power outages should be taken into account when calculating the economy of the power transmission system.
The structures of the future are therefore thought to express a whole with storage systems in the distributed production structure where renewable energy-derived productions are concentrated. Automatic coordination of cutters and separators in a smart network; alternative feeding pathways can be created for loads after a failure. The fact that there is also an intelligent distribution infrastructure for an intelligent transmission system is very important in terms of coordinated communication and coordinated switching.
Smart Network and Requirements
For a smart network, all system elements such as transformers and relays need to be intelligent and protection and communication technology must be passed from electromethanic structure to digital structure. In addition, fast communication with high band level is needed because the whole system needs to communicate with each other. Such a large system and a computer power to respond to the request for communication are also required. These conditions are now usable. Technological advances such as digital relays, fiber technology, wireless communication have made smart networks possible.
Therefore, when revising old system elements or inging new system elements, integrating appropriate systems into these structures will accelerate this transition. Can apply different protection selektivities that can adapt to direction-shifting power flows; the transmission system, which can feel large-scale power outages and exhibit different switching behaviors, must be intelligent.
This will reduce the load on system editors by better localizing failures and more efficient control and protection. One of the most important criteria to be targeted in the future is to choose the energy system to be designed in accordance with smart grid technology in the way that countries such as America, Europe, India and China do. The need for renewable energy and large grid integrations, which appear to be the only sustainable structure that can be used as long as the world has, has stipulated smart grid technology (Fire et al., 2011).
Switching to Smart Systems
When the transition to intelligent systems is decided, it is not possible to switch to such a structure immediately the next day. When it is predicted that the transition can take even a 20-30 year process, it can only be made possible to shorten this process by some measures. Legal regulations for intelligent systems, standard structures should be determined and awareness should be given that all people are in the framework. People should be made aware of the issue. Short, medium and long-term plans should be made. Because we can't throw out the current system in its entirem; What is important here and what needs to be done is to build the structures that are planned to be integrated into the system in accordance with the intelligent system.
In the study; When using a full smart grid structure, it has shown that 85% of cars used in the UNITED States (on the assumption that electric cars will be available) can charge from the existing grid without using any additional power plants. This is because cars can be charged during the night hours when energy is not used.
KEMA stated that the $16 billion incentive projected to occur in the United States over four years would be a catalyst for $64 billion in smart grid-related projects, with 280,000 new jobs, including 150,000 by the end of 2009. Investments related to the smart grid are increasing and applications are constantly being developed.