What is Static Grid and Smart Grid? What are the differences?
Main Features of Static Grid
When we look at the current grid system in general, it is formed by connecting long transmission lines of large and various power plants. This network is operated with alternating current in case of a breakdown that may occur at any point of these lines; The entire network is in danger of collapsing. Even these failures can pass from one country to another.
Today, the current grid condition consists of branch knots and ring lines. Branch knot feeding is generally from a single source; This leaves all subscribers de-energized in case of failure. It is the type of grid formed by feeding multiple rings in ring lines and parallel connection of these sides.
Insufficiency of the current grid;
- Difficult to reactive power control due to bidirectional energy flow
- Undesirable voltage changes due to changing active and reactive power
- The flicker and harmonic production is not within the desired limits
- Strength of existing grid elements with short circuit current limits and thermal resistance capacities
- According to the connection groups of transformers on the grid, the effects of short circuit currents increase and the relay selection criteria change constantly.
- In case of temporary situations such as switching events and instantaneous switching events, the grid blackness is not within the limit values
such problems are encountered.
Static Grid and Smart Grid – SMART GRID
It is the SMART structure that all points in the power grid are awake, responsive, adaptive, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, real (peer) -time, flexible, strong and connectable with any system.
In other words, it is an energy system that is efficient, reliable and coordinated with each other, consisting of many automated transmission and distribution systems.
It is a power system that has self-healing features in emergencies and responds to the needs of the generation / transmission / distribution company and the energy market.
It is a power system that provides information flow bidirectional.
Due to the increasing energy consumption in the world, being friendlier with edible energy is one of its advantages.
By increasing the use of renewable resources in energy production, it provides more efficient use of fossil resources.
This is an environmentally friendly system, since CO2 emissions will be significantly prevented.
Smart grid enables energy companies to use their resources more reliably and efficiently with real-time advanced communication and remote monitoring method.
In case of a malfunction caused by human or natural disasters with advanced communication method, the system intervenes and enables the system to work again as soon as possible with the least damage.
If the system intervention to the malfunction or failure is insufficient, it automatically directs the malfunction teams to the malfunction as soon as possible.
Today, the consumer must inform the energy producer.
With its real-time advanced communication infrastructure, the smart grid will create an environmentally friendly system that can feel overloads, regulate energy flow directions, optimize the use of renewable energy sources and reduce user costs.
One advantage of the smart grid is to enable the electricity distribution company to learn the needs of its consumers immediately and to supply energy in this direction.
Thus, energy loss is prevented and 15 percent energy savings is expected thanks to this. Today, companies need to estimate this with various parameters.
HOW DOES SMART GRID WORK?
First of all, receivers and counters are placed at every level of the grid to enable the transfer of information.
Data from wind farms, companies, solar systems or residences reach transformers.
Transformers enable the grid to perceive these data at the same time and supply energy accordingly. A wind or solar panel system can tell the grid how much energy it can generate the next day through data from the meterology.
HIGHLY EXPECTED FROM SMART GRID
- With automatic balancing and self-monitoring grids, it can take all types of fuel (coal, solar, wind, natural gas) as a resource; and show the feature of offering end-user service (heat, lighting, hot water) with minimum human intervention.
- Optimizes the use of renewable energy sources and reduces environmental impacts.
- Smart grids can feel the overload occurring in any section and regulate energy flow directions; thus preventing possible interruptions and malfunctions.
- With the help of real-time communication between consumers and grid operators; it can manage the consumer’s demand to use renewable energy-based or affordable energy.
- It adapts to the electricity price that changes during the day. It uses the energy coming from the grid during the hours when the electricity is suitable. It consumes the energy it generates during the hours when the energy is not cheap.
- With the smart meter component, it will be able to take online measurements and prevent electricity leakage; so that the consumer will be able to use cheaper quality continuous energy.
- Barış SANLI, Agah HINÇ; “The Smart Grid (Smart Grids): What can be done in Turkey”
- THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION SMART GRID
Kürsat TANRIÖVEN , Serdal YARARBAS , Hadi CENGIZ